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1 h nmr table
These considerations are valid only when sufficient time is allowed for full relaxation of the affected signals, as determined by their T 1 values. Voelter, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Now, ppm for protons on heteroatoms is a broad range and to recognize these peaks easier, keep in mind that they also appear broader as a result of hydrogen bonding. The integration curve for each proton reflects the abundance of the individual protons. This interaction between two nuclei occurs through chemical bonds , and can typically be seen up to three bonds away 3-J coupling , although it can occasionally be visible over four to five bonds, though these tend to be considerably weaker. Lambert, H. Anisotropic effects are common in p -electron systems, and are often responsible for atypical chemical shifts. Shift reagents and solvent induced shifts.